Other Actors

Listed in alphabetical order.


Possible Diesel Fuel Supply

In May 2012, Syrian officials stated they had discussed entering a deal with Algeria for fuel. The Syrian Minister cited that Algeria responded "positively" when approached about a deal. Algeria itself imports diesel, and it’s unclear whether discussions centered around diesel, and whether a deal actually materialized.

Area Spa (Italy)

Internet Surveillance System

The Italian company was constructing a $17.9 million internet surveillance system in Syria while the atrocities were ongoing. The system would allow the regime to intercept, search, and catalog every email sent inside the country. It would also allow the regime to inspect and archive mobile phone and internet service provider traffic. This would allow the regime to easily identify, track, and attack civilians for their internet activity.

Additional Information

NetApp (USA): NetApp technology would allow the system to archive email messages. Transmitted via NetApp’s Italian subsidiary to an authorized vendor in Italy, who resold the technology to Area SpA for $3.5 million.

Qosmos (France): Qosmos technology would inspect emails and reconstruct all activity on an internet user’s screen.

Ultimaco Safeware AG (Germany): provided gear for area to connect tapped lines to monitoring center computers.

Sophos (U.K.): controls Ultimaco Safeware AG

Hewlett Packard (USA): provided servers and desktop computers worth over $500,000, which underpinned the entire project. HP stated that Area SpA likely procured the technology from an HP partner that was not informed of their ultimate destination.

Aurora Finance LTD. (Cyprus)

Diesel Fuel

In July 2012, Aurora Finance Ltd. attempted to enter a contract to charter a vessel transporting 200,000 tons of diesel fuel from Malaysia to Syria.

Additional Information

Aurora Finance Ltd. operates in multiple jurisdictions:

United Kingdom: Aurora is incorporated in the U.K.

Cyprus: The registered owners of Aurora are in Cyprus

India: Aurora has agents in India.

Malaysia: Aurora has agents in Malaysia. The fuel was intended to come from Petronas, the Malaysian state oil firm.

Singapore: Aurora contracted with Mar-Link Offshore Services (MLOS) in Singapore to charter a vessel. MLOS backed out of the deal when Aurora tried to change the diesel fuel destination from Thailand to Syria. MLOS demonstrated due diligence by refusing to deliver diesel to Syria.


Fuses for Aerial Bombs

In September 2012, the U.S. Treasury sanctioned Belvneshpromservice, the Belarusian state arms exporting firm, for providing fuses for aerial bombs to Syria’s Army Supply Bureau.

Blue Coat Systems (California)

Internet Filtering Devices

The Assad regime is using Blue Coat Proxy SG devices to monitor and track internet usage and to censor website. The regime uses this information to target civilians.

Additional Information

UAE: Blue Coat transferred its devices to the UAE company Infotec in February 2011. Infotec ordered the devices in December 2010, stating that the end-user for the technology was the Iraqi Ministry of Communication in Baghdad. However Infotec actually sent the devices to Syria.

Finmeccanica (Italy) & Intracom-Telecom (Greece)

Mobile Communication Equipment & Training

This communication and encryption technology and training may have strengthened the regime’s aerial forces, a central part of the regime’s perpetration of crimes against humanity. In May 2011, FinMeccanica reportedly delivered the technology named Tetra, including 500 hand held radios and encryption technology, to Damascus. In February 2012, engineers entered Damascus to train Syrian technicians on using the technology in helicopter terminals.

Additional Information

Greece: a subsidiary of Finmeccanica, Selex Elsag, sold the technology to the Syrian unit of a Greek company named Intracom-Telecom.

The United States: Finmeccanica and Intracom-Telecom both have subsidiaries in the United States, and Finmeccanica has secured a number of U.S. federal contracts.

Georgia (Possibly Private Actors)

Diesel Fuel

Reuters reported in June 2012 that small vessels have carried diesel from Georgia into Syria. This diesel fuel is critical to the Assad regime’s ground arsenal, as it powers the regime’s tanks and infantry vehicles, and the regime cannot sufficiently produce diesel fuel domestically.

Lebanon (Private Actors)

Diesel Fuel

Reuters reported in June 2012 that Lebanese private imports of diesel in April and May 2012 had tripled their levels from 2011, and that private parties were likely transporting this material into Syria. This diesel fuel is critical to the Assad regime’s ground arsenal, as it powers the regime’s tanks and infantry vehicles, and the regime cannot sufficiently produce diesel fuel domestically.